Formal sciences are language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.Whereas the natural sciences and social sciences seek to characterize physical systems and social systems respectively using empirical methods, the formal sciences are language tools concerned with characterizing abstract structures described by sign systems. The formal sciences aid the natural sciences by providing information about the structures the latter use to describe the world, and what inferences may be made about them.
The reason grandparents get up at dawn and teenagers stay awake into the wee hours might be related to how ancient humans guarded their settlements, New Scientist reports. For 20 days, anthropologists monitored sleep patterns in the Hadza, hunter-gatherers who live in groups of about 30 individuals in modern-day Tanzania.
The major rift in the Larsen C ice shelf pictured in July 2017.
Climate change has a new poster child: a massive iceberg the size of Delaware -- one of the largest ever recorded – that early this week calved off Larsen C, the largest remaining ice shelf off the Antarctic Peninsula, scientists announced today. Although researchers cannot explicitly connect the calving event to warming air or water, those monitoring the event are now concerned that the entire shelf, after shedding more than 12% of its area, could follow the fate of its more northern peers, Larsen A and B, which collapsed entirely in 1995 and 2002, respectively.
By Paul Voosen
In psychoanalysis, the Oedipus complex (or, less commonly, Oedipal complex) is a child's desire, that the mind keeps in theunconscious via dynamic repression, to have sexual relations with the parent of the opposite sex (i.e. males attracted to their mothers, and females attracted to their fathers).
Engaged theory is a methodological framework for understanding social complexity. It takes social life or social relations as its base category, with 'the social' always understood as grounded in 'the natural', including humans as embodied beings. Engaged theory provides a framework that moves from detailed empirical analysis about things, people and processes in the world to abstract theory about the constitution and social framing of those things, people and processes.
Global studies is the academic study of political, economic, ecological and cultural relations and processes that in some way bear upon the world. Global studies is oriented around the study of globalization as it relates to different fields of activity — areas as diverse as market relations, the movement of commodities, global communications and consumption, refugees, migrants and other movements of people around the globe. Global Studies incorporates transnational and local trends in its curriculum insofar as they illustrate broader questions of global change. Undertaking a global studies course can also include field work or research in a particular area of interest.