ptenfrdeitrues

Site In English França

terça, dezembro 10, 2019
Você está aqui:Países do Mundo»Afeganistão»Afeganistão
sábado, 26 janeiro 2019 22:20

Afeganistão Destaque

Escrito por
Classifique este item
(0 votos)
Cabul capital do Afeganistão Cabul capital do Afeganistão

Afeganistão (/ æfˈɡænɪstæn, æfˈɡɑːnɪstɑːn /; Pashto / Dari: افغانستان, pashto: afġānistān [avɣɒnisˈtɒn, ab -],  Dari: Afġānestān [avɣɒnesˈtɒn]), oficialmente a República Islâmica do Afeganistão, é um país sem litoral localizado na Ásia do Sul e Central . O Afeganistão faz fronteira com o Paquistão no sul e leste; Irão no oeste; Turquemenistão, Uzbequistão e Tajiquistão, no norte; e no nordeste distante, com a China. Seu território abrange 652.000 Km2 (252.000 sq mi) e muito do que é coberto pela gama Hindu Kushmountain, que experimentam Invernos muito frios. O norte consiste em planícies férteis, enquanto o sudoeste consiste de desertos onde as temperaturas podem ficar muito quentes no Verão. Kabul serve como a capital e sua maior cidade. 

 

د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوری (pastó)
(Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jomhoriyat)
جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان (persa)
(Jamhoriye-e Eslāmī-ye Afġānistān)

República Islâmica do Afeganistão

Lema: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله 
(Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh)

Não há outro deus além de Alá; Maomé é o mensageiro de Deus. (Chahada)
Hino nacional: Milli Surood
Gentílico: afegão, afegã, afegane e afegânico

Localização Afeganistão

Localização do Afeganistão.
Capital Cabul
Cidade mais populosa Cabul
Língua oficial pachto e dari
Governo República islâmica
 - Presidente Ashraf Ghani
 - Primeiro-ministro Abdullah Abdullah
 - Presidente do Supremo Tribunal Abdul Salam Azimi
Independência do Reino Unido 
 - Declarada 8 de agosto de 1919 
 - Reconhecida 19 de agosto de 1919 
Área  
 - Total 652 090 km² (41.º)
 - Água (%) n/d
 Fronteira Irão (O)
Turquemenistão (NO)
Uzbequistão (N)
Tajiquistão (N)
China (NE)
Paquistão (SE)
População  
 - Estimativa para 2013 31 108 077 hab. (37.º)
 - Censo 1979 13 051 358 hab. 
 - Densidade 43,5 hab./km² (150.º)
PIB (base PPC) Estimativa de 2014
 - Total US$ 61,689 bilhões*
 - Per capita US$ 1 972
PIB (nominal) Estimativa de 2014
 - Total US$ 21,706 bilhões*
 - Per capita US$ 693[3] 
IDH (2017) 0,498 (168.º) – baixo
Moeda Afegane (AFA)
Fuso horário (UTC+4:30)
Clima Desértico
Org. internacionais ONU
Cód. ISO AFG
Cód. Internet .af
Cód. telef. +93
Websitegovernamental www.president.gov.af

Mapa Afeganistão


O país fica numa localização geoestratégica importante que liga o Oriente Médio com a Ásia Central e o subcontinente indiano, tendo sido a casa de vários povos através dos tempos. A terra tem testemunhado muitas campanhas militares desde a Antiguidade, as mais notáveis feitas por Alexandre o Grande, Chandragupta Máuria, Gengis Khan , pela União Soviética e, mais recentemente, pelos Estados Unidos e pela OTAN. Também foi local de origem de várias dinastias locais como os Greco-bactrianos, Cuchanas, Safáridas, Gaznévidas, Gúridas, Timúridas, Mogóis e muitos outros que criaram seus próprios impérios.

  

A história política moderna do Afeganistão começa em 1709 com a ascensão dos Pachtuns (ou Pastós), quando a dinastia Hotaki foi criada em Kandaar seguida por Ahmad Shah Durrani subindo ao poder em 1747. A capital do Afeganistão foi transferida em 1776 de Kandaar para Cabul e parte do Império Afegão foi cedida aos impérios vizinhos em 1893. No final do século XIX, o Afeganistão tornou-se um Estado tampão no grande jogo entre os impérios britânico e russo. Essa circunstância histórica, combinada com o terreno montanhoso do país, impediu o domínio de potências imperialistas sobre o país, mas também resultou em pouco desenvolvimento económico. Depois da Terceira Guerra Anglo-Afegã e a assinatura do Tratado de Rawalpindi em 1919, o país recuperou o controle de sua política externa com os britânicos.

 

Após a revolução marxista de 1978 e a invasão soviética em 1979, teve início uma guerra entre as forças governamentais apoiadas por tropas soviéticas e os rebeldes mujahidin, apoiados pelos Estados Unidos, Paquistão, Arábia Saudita e outros países muçulmanos. Nesse conflito, mais de um milhão de afegãos perderam a vida, muitos deles vítimas de minas terrestres. Após a vitória dos rebeldes, em 1992, teve início uma guerra civil, entre diversos grupos rebeldes, que foi vencida pelos talibãs. Depois dos atentados terroristas de 11 de Setembro de 2001, teve início um novo conflito, decorrente da intervenção de forças norte-americanas no país. Em Dezembro de 2001 o Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas autorizou a criação da Força Internacional de Assistência para Segurança para ajudar a manter a segurança no Afeganistão e ajudar a administração do presidente Hamid Karzai.

 

As décadas de guerra fizeram do Afeganistão o país mais perigoso do mundo, incluindo o título de maior produtor de refugiados e requerentes de asilo. Enquanto a comunidade internacional está reconstruindo o Afeganistão dilacerado pela guerra, grupos terroristas como a rede Haqqani e Hezbi Islami estão activamente envolvidos na insurgência talibã por todo o país, que inclui centenas de assassinatos e ataques suicidas. De acordo com a Organização das Nações Unidas, os insurgentes foram responsáveis por 75% das mortes de civis em 2010 e 80% em 2011.

A presença humana no Afeganistão remonta ao Paleolítico Médio, e localização estratégica do país ao longo da Rota da Seda conectada às culturas do Oriente Médio e outras partes da Ásia. A terra tem sido historicamente o lar de vários povos e testemunhou numerosas campanhas militares, incluindo as de Alexandre, o Grande, Mauryas, Árabes Muçulmanos, Mongóis, Britânicos, Soviéticos e, desde 2001, pelos Estados Unidos, com países aliados da OTAN. Tem sido chamado de "invencível" e apelidado de "cemitério de impérios". A terra também serviu como a fonte da qual os Kushans, Hephthalitas, Samanids, Saffarids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Khaljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis, e outros subiram para formar impérios principais.

 

A história política do moderno estado do Afeganistão começou com as dinastias Hotak e Durrani no século XVIII. No final do século 19, o Afeganistão tornou-se um estado-tampão no "Grande Jogo" entre a Índia Britânica e o Império Russo. Sua fronteira com a Índia britânica, a Linha Durand, foi formada em 1893, mas não é reconhecida pelo governo afegão e levou a relações tensas com o Paquistão desde a independência deste último em 1947. Após a Terceira Guerra Anglo-Afegã em 1919, o país estava livre da influência estrangeira, acabando por se tornar uma monarquia sob o rei Amanullah, até quase 50 anos depois, quando Zahir Shah foi derrubado e uma república foi estabelecida. Em 1978, após um segundo golpe, o Afeganistão tornou-se um estado socialista e depois um protetorado da União Soviética. Isso evocou a Guerra Soviética-Afegã nos anos 80 contra os rebeldes mujahideen. Em 1996, a maior parte do Afeganistão foi capturada pelo grupo fundamentalista islâmico Talibã, que governou a maior parte do país como um regime totalitário por mais de cinco anos. Os Talibãs foram depostos à força pela coaligação liderada pela Nato, e uma nova estrutura política governamental democraticamente eleita foi formada.

O Afeganistão é uma república islâmica presidencial unitária com uma população de 31 milhões, composta principalmente por pashtuns, tajiques, hazaras e uzbeques. É membro das Nações Unidas, da Organização da Cooperação Islâmica, do Grupo dos 77, da Organização para a Cooperação Econômica e do Movimento dos Não-Alinhados. A economia do Afeganistão é a 108ª maior do mundo, com um PIB de US $ 64,08 bilhões; o país se sai muito pior em termos de PIB per capita (PPC), ficando em 167º lugar entre 186 países em um relatório de 2016 do Fundo Monetário Internacional.

Etimologia

O nome Afeganistão (em persa: افغانستان, [avɣɒnestɒn]) significa "Terra dos Afegãos", que se origina a partir do etnónimo "Afegão". Historicamente, o nome "Afegão" designa as pessoas pachtuns, o maior grupo étnico do Afeganistão. Este nome é mencionado na forma de Abgan no século III pelo Império Sassânida e como Avagana (afghana) no século VI pelo astrónomo indiano Varahimira. Um povo chamado de Afegãos é mencionado várias vezes no século X no livro de geografia Hudud al-'alam, principalmente quando faz-se referência a uma vila: "Saul, uma agradável vila nas montanhas. Onde vivem os Afegãos."

Al-Biruni faz referência no século XI a várias tribos nas montanhas da fronteira ocidental do Rio Indo, conhecidas como Montanhas Sulaiman. ibne Batuta, um famoso estudioso marroquino que visitou a região em 1333, escreve: "Nós viajamos para Cabul, antigamente uma grande cidade, o lugar agora é habitado por uma tribo de persas chamados afegãos. Eles vivem nas montanhas e desfiladeiros e possuem considerável força, e são muitas vezes salteadores. Sua principal montanha é chamada de Kuh Sulaiman."

Um importante estudioso persa do século XVI explica extensamente sobre os afegãos. Por exemplo, ele escreve:

Os homens de Cabul e Khilji voltaram para casa; e quando eles foram questionados sobre os Muçulmanos do Coistão (as montanhas) e como estavam as coisas por lá, eles disseram, "Não chame de Coistão, mas Afeganistão, pois não há nada lá além dos afegãos e os distúrbios." Assim, é evidente que, o povo do país chamam a sua casa no seu próprio idioma como Afeganistão, e se nomeavam Afegãos.

— Firishta 1560-1620 d.C.

É amplamente aceito que os termos "Pachtum" e Afegão são sinónimos. Nos escritos do século XVII o poeta Pachto Khushal Khan Khattak é mencionado:

Puxe sua espada e mate qualquer um, que diz que Pachtum e Afegão não são um! Os Árabes sabem e assim fazem os Romanos: Afegãos são Pachtuns, Pachtuns são Afegãos!

A última parte do nome, -istão é um sufixo persa para "lugar", proeminente em muitas línguas da região. O nome "Afeganistão" é descrito no século XVI pelo imperador mogol Babur em suas memórias e também pelo estudioso persa Firishta e os descendentes de Babur, referindo-se a tradicional étnica afegã (pachtum) territórios entre as montanhas de Indocuche e o Rio Indo. No início do século XIX, Políticos afegãos decidiram por adotar o nome Afeganistão para todo o Império Afegão após sua tradução para o inglês já havia aparecido em diversos tratados com o Império Qajar e a Índia Britânica. Em 1857, na análise de John William Kaye The Afghan Warm Friedrich Engels descreve o "Afeganistão" como:

[...]um extensivo país da Ásia[...] entre a Pérsia e as Índias, e na outra direção entre Indocuche e o Oceano Índico. Ele anteriormente incluía as províncias persas de Coração e Coistão juntamente com Herate, Baluchistão, Caxemira, Sinde e uma considerável parte da região de Punjabe[...] suas principais cidades são Cabul, a capital, Gázni, Pexauar e Candaar.

O Reino do Afeganistão foi, por vezes referido como Reino de Cabul, como mencionado pelo estadista e historiador britânico Mountstuart Elphinstone. O Afeganistão foi oficialmente reconhecido como um estado soberano pela comunidade internacional após a assinatura do Tratado de Rawalpindi em 1919.

 

Referências

  •  "Ethnic groups". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 18 September 2010Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, other (includes smaller numbers of Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, Pashai, and Kyrghyz) note: current statistical data on the sensitive subject of ethnicity in Afghanistan is not available, and ethnicity data from small samples of respondents to opinion polls are not a reliable alternative; Afghanistan's 2004 constitution recognizes 14 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Baloch, Turkmen, Nuristani, Pamiri, Arab, Gujar, Brahui, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai (2015)
  •  "the definition of afghan". www.dictionary.com. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  •  "Afghanistani", The Free Dictionary, retrieved 3 December 2018
  •  "Central Statistics Organization". cso.gov.af.
  •  "Afghanistan". International Monetary Fund
  •  "Gini Index". World Bank. Archived from the original on 11 May 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  •  "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 14 December 2015. p. 18. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  •  The phoneme /f/ ف occurs only in loanwords in Pashto, it tends to be replaced with /p/ پ. [b] is also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants; [v] is an allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants in loanwords.
  •  "Afghanistan | history – geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 19 October2018.
  •  "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. www.cia.gov. Retrieved 22 August2018.
  •   "U.S. maps". Pubs.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
    • "South Asia: Data, Projects, and Research". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
    • "MAPS SHOWING GEOLOGY, OIL AND GAS FIELDS AND GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES OF SOUTH ASIA (Includes Afghanistan)". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
    • "University of Washington Jackson School of International Studies: The South Asia Center". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
    • "Syracruse University: The South Asia Center". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
    • "Center for South Asian studies". Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  •  The History of Afghanistan, 2nd Edition by Meredith L. Runion
  •  Dalrymple, William (9 March 2014). "Is Afghanistan really impossible to conquer?". BBC News.
  •  "Afghanistan: Most invaded, yet unconquerable". Times of India.
  •  Akhilesh Pillalamarri. "Why Is Afghanistan the 'Graveyard of Empires'?". The Diplomat.
  •  Griffin, Luke (14 January 2002). "The Pre-Islamic Period". Afghanistan Country Study. Illinois Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 3 November 2001. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  •  "Afghanistan: Who controls what". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
  •  "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  •  "Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  •   Afghanistan – John Ford Shroder, University of Nebraska. Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  "Afghanistan: A Treasure Trove for Archaeologists". Time Magazine. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  •  The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity by George Erdosy, p.321
  •  The History of Afghanistan by Meredith L. Runion, p.44-49
  •  The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society. pp.1
  •  Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. pp.96
  •  Bryant, Edwin F. (2001) The quest for the origins of Vedic culture: the Indo-Aryan migration debate Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513777-4.
  •  Afghanistan: ancient Ariana (1950), Information Bureau, p3.
  •  "Chronological History of Afghanistan – the cradle of Gandharan civilisation". Gandhara.com.au. 15 February 1989. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  •  The History of Afghanistan by Meredith L. Runion, p.44
  •  "Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  •  "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  •  ?amd-Allah Mustawfi of Qazwin (1340). "The Geographical Part of the NUZHAT-AL-QULUB". Translated by Guy Le Strange. Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  •  "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.3)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 18 September2010.
  •  "Central Asian world cities". Faculty.washington.edu. 29 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  •  Page, Susan (18 February 2009). "Obama's war: Deploying 17,000 raises stakes in Afghanistan". Usatoday.com. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  "Khurasan". The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. 2009. p. 55. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the term "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of what are now Soviet Central Asia and Afghanistan
  •  Ibn Battuta (2004). Travels in Asia and Africa, 1325–1354 (reprint, illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-415-34473-9.
  •  Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (1560). "Chapter 200: Translation of the Introduction to Firishta's History". The History of India6. Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 8. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
  •  Jump up to:a b Edward G. Browne. "A Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500–1924), Chapter IV. An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722–1922)". Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  •  "Ahmad Shah Durrani". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the originalon 4 April 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  •  Friedrich Engels (1857). "Afghanistan". Andy Blunden. The New American Cyclopaedia, Vol. I. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
  •  The Oxford Dictionary of Islam by John L. Esposito, p.71
  •  Tanner, Stephen (2009). Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War against the Taliban. Da Capo Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-306-81826-4.
  •  Nalwa, Vanit (2009). Hari Singh Nalwa, "champion of the Khalsaji" (1791–1837). p. 198. ISBN 978-81-7304-785-5.
  •  Chahryar, Adle (2003). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. p. 296. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.
  •  Edward Ingram. The International History Review, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Apr. 1980), pp. 160–171. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40105749Great Britain's Great Game: An Introduction
  •  In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1775–1842 By Edward Ingram. Frank Cass & Co, London, 1984. ISBN 0714632465. p7-19
  •  Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 25. Americana Corporation. 1976. p. 24.
  •  https://www.rferl.org/a/1103837.html
  •  Eur (2002). The Far East and Australasia 2003. Psychology Press. pp. 62–. ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9.
  •  Anthony Hyman (27 July 2016). Afghanistan under Soviet Domination, 1964–91. Springer. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-1-349-21948-3.
  •  Bowersox, Gary W. (2004). The Gem Hunter: The Adventures of an American in Afghanistan. United States: GeoVision, Inc. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-9747323-1-2. To launch this plan, Bhutto recruited and trained a group of Afghans in the Bala-Hesar of Peshawar, in Pakistan's North-west Frontier Province. Among these young men were Massoud, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and other members of Jawanan-e Musulman. Massoud's mission to Bhutto was to create unrest in northern Afghanistan. It served Massoud's interests, which were apparently opposition to the Soviets and independence for Afghanistan. Later, after Massoud and Hekmatyar had a terrible falling-out over Massoud's opposition to terrorist tactics and methods, Massoud overthrew from Jawanan-e Musulman. He joined Rabani's newly created Afghan political party, Jamiat-i-Islami, in exile in Pakistan.
  •  Hussain, Rizwan (2005). Pakistan And The Emergence Of Islamic Militancy In Afghanistan. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-7546-4434-7.
  •  Jump up to:a b Meher, Jagmohan (2004). America's Afghanistan War: The Success that Failed. Gyan Books. pp. 68–69, 94. ISBN 978-81-7835-262-6.
  •  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/83854.stm
  •  Kalinovsky, Artemy M. (2011). A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Harvard University Press. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-0-674-05866-8.
  •  "Story of US, CIA and Taliban". The Brunei Times. 2009. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  "The Cost of an Afghan 'Victory'". The Nation. 1999. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Afghanistan". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  Lacina, Bethany; Gleditsch, Nils Petter (2005). "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths" (PDF)European Journal of Population21 (2–3): 154. doi:10.1007/s10680-005-6851-6.
  •  Kakar, Mohammed (3 March 1997). The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520208933. The Afghans are among the latest victims of genocide by a superpower. Large numbers of Afghans were killed to suppress resistance to the army of the Soviet Union, which wished to vindicate its client regime and realize its goal in Afghanistan.
  •  Klass, Rosanne (1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4128-3965-5. During the intervening fourteen years of Communist rule, an estimated 1.5 to 2 million Afghan civilians were killed by Soviet forces and their proxies- the four Communist regimes in Kabul, and the East Germans, Bulgarians, Czechs, Cubans, Palestinians, Indians and others who assisted them. These were not battle casualties or the unavoidable civilian victims of warfare. Soviet and local Communist forces seldom attacked the scattered guerilla bands of the Afghan Resistance except, in a few strategic locales like the Panjsher valley. Instead they deliberately targeted the civilian population, primarily in the rural areas.
  •  Reisman, W. Michael; Norchi, Charles H. "Genocide and the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan" (PDF). Retrieved 7 January 2017According to widely reported accounts, substantial programmes of depopulation have been conducted in these Afghan provinces: Ghazni, Nagarhar, Lagham, Qandahar, Zabul, Badakhshan, Lowgar, Paktia, Paktika and Kunar...There is considerable evidence that genocide has been committed against the Afghan people by the combined forces of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.
  •  Goodson, Larry P. (2001). Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. University of Washington Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-295-98050-8.
  •  "Soldiers of God: Cold War (Part 1/5)". CNN. 1998. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  •  UNICEF, Land-mines: A deadly inheritance Archived 5 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  "Landmines in Afghanistan: A Decades Old Danger". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  •  "Refugee Admissions Program for Near East and South Asia". Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  •  Haroon, Sana (2008). "The Rise of Deobandi Islam in the North-West Frontier Province and Its Implications in Colonial India and Pakistan 1914–1996". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society18 (1): 66–67. doi:10.1017/S1356186307007778. JSTOR 27755911.
  •  "Afghanistan: History – Columbia Encyclopedia". Infoplease.com. 11 September 2001. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  Jump up to:a b 'Mujahidin vs. Communists: Revisiting the battles of Jalalabad and Khost. By Anne Stenersen: a Paper presented at the conference COIN in Afghanistan: From Mughals to the Americans, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), 12–13 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  •  Amin Saikal (13 November 2004). Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival(2006 1st ed.). I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd., London New York. p. 352. ISBN 978-1-85043-437-5.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Blood-Stained Hands, Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009.
  •  GUTMAN, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington D.C.
  •  Jump up to:a b c d "Afghanistan: The massacre in Mazar-i Sharif. (Chapter II: Background)". Human Rights Watch. November 1998. Archived from the original on 2 November 2008. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan Justice Project. 2005. p. 63. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  "Casting Shadows: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity: 1978–2001" (PDF). Afghanistan Justice Project. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  Matinuddin, Kamal, The Taliban Phenomenon, Afghanistan 1994–1997, Oxford University Press, (1999), pp. 25–26
  •  'The Taliban'. Mapping Militant Organizations. Stanford University. Updated 15 July 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Documents Detail Years of Pakistani Support for Taliban, Extremists". George Washington University. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  Afghanistan: Chronology of Events January 1995 – February 1997 (PDF) (Report). Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. February 1997.
  •  Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14.
  •  Country profile: Afghanistan (published August 2008) (page 3). Library of Congress. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  •  "The Taliban's War on Women. A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan"(PDF). Physicians for Human Rights. 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007.
  •  Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues by Gus Martin
  •  Marcela Grad. Massoud: An Intimate Portrait of the Legendary Afghan Leader (1 March 2009 ed.). Webster University Press. p. 310.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Inside the Taliban". National Geographic. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.
  •  "Ahmed Shah Massoud". History Commons. 2010. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  •  Maley, William (2009). The Afghanistan wars. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-230-21313-5.
  •  Rashid, Ahmed (11 September 2001). "Afghanistan resistance leader feared dead in blast". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013.
  •  "Brigade 055". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013.
  •  "Inside the Taliban". National Geographic. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008.
  •  "Life under Taliban cuts two ways". CSM. 20 September 2001 Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  Rory McCarthy in Islamabad (17 October 2001). "New offer on Bin Laden". London: Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  •  'Trump calls out Pakistan, India as he pledges to 'fight to win' in Afghanistan. cnn.com,24 August 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  •  "WPO Poll: Afghan Public Overwhelmingly Rejects al-Qaeda, Taliban". 30 January 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2017Equally large percentages endorse the US military presence in Afghanistan. Eighty-three percent said they have a favorable view of “the US military forces in our country” (39% very favorable). Just 17% have an unfavorable view.
  •  "Afghan Futures: A National Public Opinion Survey" (PDF). 29 January 2015. p. 4. Retrieved 2 January 2017Seventy-seven percent support the presence of U.S. forces; 67 percent say the same of NATO/ISAF forces more generally. Despite the country’s travails, eight in 10 say it was a good thing for the United States to oust the Taliban in 2001. And many more blame either the Taliban or al Qaeda for the country’s violence, 53 percent, than blame the United States, 12 percent. The latter is about half what it was in 2012, coinciding with a sharp reduction in the U.S. deployment.
  •  Tyler, Patrick (8 October 2001). "A Nation challenged: The attack; U.S. and Britain strike Afghanistan, aiming at bases and terrorist camps; Bush warns 'Taliban will pay a price'". New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February2010.
  •  United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386S/RES/1386(2001) 31 May 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2007. – (UNSCR 1386)
  •  "United States Mission to Afghanistan". Nato.usmission.gov. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  Fossler, Julie. "USAID Afghanistan". Afghanistan.usaid.gov. Archived from the originalon 17 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  "Canada's Engagement in Afghanistan: Backgrounder". Afghanistan.gc.ca. 9 July 2010. Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  "Pakistan Accused of Helping Taliban". ABC News. 31 July 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  •  Crilly, Rob; Spillius, Alex (26 July 2010). "Wikileaks: Pakistan accused of helping Taliban in Afghanistan attacks". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  •  "Living in Fear of Deportation". DW-World.De. 22 January 2006. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  •  Witte, Griff (8 December 2009). "Taliban shadow officials offer concrete alternative". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  •  Mirwais Khan (15 July 2015). "Afghan Taliban leader backs peace talks with Kabul officials". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
    See also: Mullah Omar: Taliban leader 'died in Pakistan in 2013'
    See also: Afghanistan says Taliban leader Mullah Omar died 2 years ago
    So the question remains: If Omar died in 2013, who from the Taliban sanctioned peace talks in 2015 in Omar's name?
  •  "President Karzai Address to the Nation on Afghanistan's Peace Efforts". The Embassy of Afghanistan in Washington, DC. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  •  "U.S. blames Pakistan agency in Kabul attack". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  •  "Panetta: U.S. will pursue Pakistan-based militants". USA Today. September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  •  "Huge security as Afghan presidential election looms". BBC. 4 April 2014.
  •  "Afghanistan votes in historic presidential election". BBC. 5 April 2014.
  •  Shalizi and Harooni, Hamid and Mirwais (4 April 2014). "Landmark Afghanistan Presidential Election Held Under Shadow of Violence". Huffington Post.
  •  "Afghanistan's Future: Who's Who in Pivotal Presidential Election". NBC News.
  •  "Afghan president Ashraf Ghani inaugurated after bitter campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  •  "U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan" (online). CBA News. Associated Press. 28 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  •  Sune Engel Rasmussen in Kabul (28 December 2014). "Nato ends combat operations in Afghanistan". Kabul: The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  •  "U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan". CBS News. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  •  "TSG IntelBrief: Afghanistan 16.0". The Soufan Group. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  •  "Afghan Civilians". Brown University. 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  •  Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data5: 180214. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  •  "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". UNdata. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  •  "Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  •  "History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin 1976–2005" (PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  •  "Snow in Afghanistan: Natural Hazards". NASA. 3 February 2006. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  •  "Snow may end Afghan drought, but bitter winter looms". Reuters. 18 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013.
  •  "Afghanistan's woeful water management delights neighbors". Csmonitor.com. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  Crone, Anthony J. (April 2007). Earthquakes Pose a Serious Hazard in Afghanistan(PDF) (Technical report). US Geological Survey. Fact Sheet FS 2007–3027. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  •  "Earthquake Hazards". USGS Projects in Afghanistan. US Geological Survey. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  "'Seven dead' as earthquake rocks Afghanistan". BBC News. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  Jump up to:a b Peters, Steven G. (October 2007). Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007 (PDF) (Technical report). USGS Afghanistan Project/US Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey. Fact Sheet 2007–3063. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Minerals in Afghanistan" (PDF). British Geological Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Afghans say US team found huge potential mineral wealth". BBC News. 14 June 2010. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  "Land area (sq. km)". World Development Indicators. World Bank. 2011. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  "CIA Factbook – Area: 41". CIA. 26 November 1991. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "STATE OF AFGHAN CITIES -2015 VOLUME ONE" (PDF)samuelhall.org. Ministry of Urban Development Affairs.
  •  "Afghan Population 29.2 Million – Pajhwok Afghan News". www.pajhwok.com.
  •  Mohammad Jawad Sharifzada, ed. (20 November 2011). "Afghanistan's population reaches 26m". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  •  "Afghanistan – Population Reference Bureau". Population Reference Bureau. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  •  "Estimated population of Afghanistan 2012-13". Central Statistics Office. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2012Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state. Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani and Pamiri are – in addition to Pashto and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them
  •  Jump up to:a b c Izady, Michael (2002–2017). "Chapter 1: Religious Composition of Afghanistan". Gulf2000.columbia.edu. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  •  "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  •  Lavina Melwani. "Hindus Abandon Afghanistan". Hinduism Today. Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  Majumder, Sanjoy (25 September 2003). "Sikhs struggle in Afghanistan". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  N.C. Aizenman (27 January 2005). "Afghan Jew Becomes Country's One and Only". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  "Meet Rula Ghani, Afghanistan's Christian First Lady". 13 January 2016.
  •  "Why two percent of all Afghans are now members of a church". Blasting News. 1 April 2017.
  •  "The Supreme Court Chief Justice Biography". supremecourt.gov.af. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
  •  "Database". afghan-bios.info.
  •  "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 Results". Transparency International. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  •  "Corruption widespread in Afghanistan, UNODC survey says". UNODC.org. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  "Karzai vows to tackle corruption". CBC.ca. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  Jump up to:a b Cooper, Helene (2 November 2009). "Karzai Gets New Term as Afghan Runoff is Scrapped". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "RAWA Photo Gallery: They are Responsible for Afghanistan's Tragedy". RAWA. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
  •  "Women in Parliaments: World Classification". Ipu.org. 30 November 2009. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  •  Ahmed, Azam (8 December 2012). "For Afghan Officials, Prospect of Death Comes With Territory". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  •  "Explaining Elections, Independent Election Commission of Afghanistan". Iec.org.af. 9 October 2004. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  Glasch, Mike. "USACE TAA employee named top engineer". Army.mil. US Army. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  •  Rubin, Alissa J. (1 March 2015). "Afghan Policewomen Struggle Against Culture". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  •  Mehrotra, Kartikay. "Karzai Woos India Inc. as Delay on U.S. Pact Deters Billions".
  •  "Agriculture". USAID. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  •  "The Taliban Is Capturing Afghanistan's $1 Trillion in Mining Wealth". www.bloomberg.com. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
  •  Gall, Carlotta (7 July 2010). "Afghan Companies Say U.S. Did Not Pay Them". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  •  "the Kabul New City Official Website". DCDA. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "Ghazi Amanullah Khan City". najeebzarab.af. 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  •  "Case study: Aino Mina". Designmena.com. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  A Humane Afghan City? by Ann Marlowe in Forbes 2 September 2009. Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  Michael Sprague. "AFGHANISTAN COUNTRY PROFILE" (PDF)usaid.gov.
  •  "Economic Growth". USAID. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  •  "Afghanistan, neighbors unveil 'Silk Road' plan". Reuters. 22 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  •  "CEOs should replace generals in Afghanistan: India". 28 June 2012.
  •  "The Largest Private Employer In Afghanistan Is A B Corporation, And It's Growing Fast". 31 March 2014.
  •  O'Hanlon, Michael E. "Deposits Could Aid Ailing Afghanistan" Archived 23 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Brookings Institution, 16 June 2010.
  •  Klett, T.R. (March 2006). Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Northern Afghanistan, 2006 (PDF) (Technical report). USGS-Afghanistan Ministry of Mines & Industry Joint Oil & Gas Resource Assessment Team. Fact Sheet 2006–3031. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  "Afghanistan signs '$7 bn' oil deal with China". 28 December 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  •  "Afghanistan's Mineral Fortune". Institute for Environmental Diplomacy and Security Report. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December2013.
  •  Tucker, Ronald D. (2011). Rare Earth Element Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Preliminary Resource Assessment of the Khanneshin Carbonatite Complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan (PDF) (Technical report). USGS. Open-File Report 2011–1207. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  •  "China, Not U.S., Likely to Benefit from Afghanistan's Mineral Riches". Daily Finance. 14 June 2010 Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  "China Willing to Spend Big on Afghan Commerce". The New York Times. 29 December 2009. Archived from the original on 31 July 2011.
  •  "Indian Group Wins Rights to Mine in Afghanistan's Hajigak Archived 10 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine". Businessweek. 6 December 2011
  •  Risen, James (17 June 2010). "U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  "China wins $700 million Afghan oil and gas deal. Why didn't the US bid?". CSMonitor.com. 28 December 2011 Archived 31 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  "Hairatan to Mazar-i-Sharif railway – Railways of Afghanistan". www.andrewgrantham.co.uk.
  •  "Afghan-Turkmenistan railroad inaugurated". www.pajhwok.com.
  •  "Khaf-Herat railroad to be launched in Iran soon". "Iran-Afghanistan railway networks through Khaf-Herat Railroad will be completed in the next few months," Yazdani said, according to Mehr news agency on August 3
  •  "Rail Linkup With Afghanistan by March 2018". 25 February 2017.
  •  "Khaf-Herat railway". RaillyNews | Dailly Railway News in English. 10 December 2013.
  •  "Railways of Afghanistan -Afghan railroads, past, present and future". www.andrewgrantham.co.uk.
  •  "Driving in Afghanistan". Caravanistan. Caravanistan. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  •  "Afghan bus crash kills 45". theguardian.com. 26 April 2013. Retrieved 4 November2014.
  •  "Afghanistan" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  •  Jump up to:a b UNESCO, Country profile, http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/af
  •  Peter, Tom A. (17 December 2011). "Childbirth and maternal health improve in Afghanistan". Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  •  "Health". United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  •  Anne-Marie DiNardo, LPA/PIPOS (31 March 2006). "Empowering Afghanistan's Disabled Population – 31 March 2006". Usaid.gov. Archived from the original on 8 May 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  Richard Norton-Taylor (13 February 2008). "Afghanistan's refugee crisis 'ignored'". Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 19 May2012.
  •  "Afghanistan: People living with disabilities call for integration Archived 20 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  •  Virginia Haussegger Mahooba's Promise ABC TV 7.30 Report. 2009. ABC.net.au. Retrieved 15 July 2009. Archived 26 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  •  "Afghanistan". Measuredhs.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  •  Jump up to:a b "Education". USAID. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  •  "Wardak seeks $3b in aid for school buildings". Pajhwok Afghan News. 18 May 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  •  "Management and Establishment of Lincoln Learning Centers in Afghanistan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  •  "Ghazni governor signs memorandum for Lincoln Learning Center – War On Terror News". Waronterrornews.typepad.com. 22 September 2010. Archived from the originalon 31 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "Rising literacy in Afghanistan ensures transition". Army.mil. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "Kazakhstan's foreign aid systems are maturing, integrating with foreign policy". diplomacy.co.il.
  •  "Country Profile: Afghanistan" (PDF). Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. August 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  •  US Library of Congress: Afghanistan – Ethnic Groups (Pashtun)
  •  Heathcote, Tony (1980, 2003) "The Afghan Wars 1839–1919", Sellmount Staplehurst.
  •  "Afghanistan: Kuchi nomads seek a better deal". IRIN Asia. 18 February 2008. Archived 10 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  •  G.V. Brandolini. Afghanistan cultural heritage. Orizzonte terra, Bergamo. 2007. p. 64.
  •  "42 Buddhist relics discovered in Logar". Maqsood Azizi. Pajhwok Afghan News. 18 August 2010. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 23 August2010.[not in citation given] (bad URL - does not match page title)
  •  "Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages". Sayed Salahuddin. News Daily. 17 August 2010. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August2010.
  •  "Buddhist remains found in Afghanistan". Press TV. 17 August 2010. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  •   "Afghanistan: No Country for Women | International Women's Day | Al Jazeera". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  •  "Afghanistan 2017/2018". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  •  "240 cases of honor killing recorded in Afghanistan". khaama.com. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  •  "AIHRC: 400 rape, honor killings registered in Afghanistan in 2 years". latinbusinesstoday.com. 10 June 2013. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  •  Injustice and Impunity Mediation of Criminal Offences of Violence against Women. Kabul: United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan. May 2018. p. 8.
  •  Alikozai, Hasib Danish. "Report: 21 Journalists Killed in Afghanistan in 2017".
  •  "2017 World Press Freedom Index – Reporters Without Borders".
  •  "Artist Biographies". Afghanland.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  •  "Connecting Afghanistan: The rise of technology in governance and society – The Embassy of Afghanistan in London". afghanistanembassy.org.uk.
  •  "Afghanistan: 10 facts you may not know". 6 July 2011 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  •  "Classical Dari and Pashto Poets". Afghan-web.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  •  "Sports". Pajhwok Afghan News. pajhwok.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2011.

Mais Informação

Livros

  • Banting, Erinn. (2003). Afghanistan the People. Crabtree Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7787-9336-6. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Bleaney, C. H; Gallego, María Ángeles (2006). Afghanistan: a bibliography. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-14532-0. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Fowler, Corinne (2007). Chasing Tales: Travel Writing, Journalism and the History of British Ideas About Afghanistan. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-2262-1. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Griffiths, John C (2001). Afghanistan: a History of Conflict. Carlton Books. ISBN 978-1-84222-597-4. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Habibi, Abdul Hai (2003). Afghanistan: an Abridged History. Fenestra Books. ISBN 978-1-58736-169-2.
  • Hopkins, B.D. (2008). The Making of Modern Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-55421-4. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Johnson, Robert (2011). The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979856-8.
  • Levi, Peter (1972). The Light Garden of the Angel King: Journeys in Afghanistan. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-211042-6. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Malleson, George Bruce (2005). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878 (Elibron Classic Replica ed.). Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-7278-6. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.
  • Olson, Gillia M (2005). Afghanistan. Capstone Press. ISBN 978-0-7368-2685-3. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014.
  • Omrani, Bijan; Leeming, Matthew (2011). Afghanistan: A Companion and Guide (2nd ed.). Odyssey Publications. ISBN 978-962-217-816-8.
  • Reddy, L.R. (2002). Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban Era?. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-319-3.
  • Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3863-6.
  • Runion, Meredith L. (2007). The History of Afghanistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33798-7.

Artigos

  • Meek, James. Worse than a Defeat. London Review of Books, Vol. 36, No. 24, December 2014, pages 3–10
Ler 700 vezes Modificado em sábado, 13 abril 2019 20:40

Deixe um comentário

Make sure you enter all the required information, indicated by an asterisk (*). HTML code is not allowed.

Parceiros Educacionais

National Geographic   Discovery Channel    

Parceiros Tecnológicos


Teksmartit     IB6 WS CONSULTING

Usamos cookies para melhorar nosso site e sua experiência ao usá-lo. Os cookies utilizados para o funcionamento essencial deste site já foram definidos. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

  I accept cookies from this site.
EU Cookie Directive Module Information